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Contract theory is the study of how people and organizations build and develop legal agreements. It analyzes how parties with conflicting interests build formal and informal contracts, even leases. Contract theory is based on the principles of financial and economic behavior, as different parties have different incentives to perform or not perform certain actions. It is also useful for understanding futures and other legal contracts and their terms. It also includes an understanding of declarations of intent and declarations of intent. A clear conclusion emerging from this research study is that smart contracts and blockchain are feasible in development aid, but not free of challenges for adoption in recipient countries where governments are reluctant to legalize cryptocurrency transactions, operating costs are high, and there are no markets, key infrastructure and Internet connectivity. However, it has been described here and in other scientific articles that donors appreciate the potential of blockchain to provide seamless help. The implications of the survey results show a great interest of support staff in the use of blockchain in the industry. This would allow for traceability, evidence-based and cyclical aid disbursement, efficient delivery and tracking of supplies; grant beneficiaries access to aid data and resources; and ensuring transparency and accountability through smart contracts. Contracts concluded between classes always refer to calls for operations, i.e. requests for services. The prerequisite specified for a contract defines the rules to be followed to invoke an operation. The customer is responsible for compliance with this requirement.

Specifically, the customer must ensure that the specified conditions are met. In order for the customer to meet this obligation, the predicates used as test questions in the prerequisite must be accessible through the provider`s interface. Before calling an operation, the client can then test the compliance with the prerequisite and set the required state if that prerequisite is not yet met. To combat attacks on the site`s privacy, the Lightning Network and Smart Contracts (LNSC) model of Huang et al. [76] could be used. The LNSC is a blockchain-based approach to securing the charging process of electric vehicles. The model consists of three phases: registration, scheduling, authentication, and editing. During the registration phase, electric vehicles, charging batteries and operators register in a blockchain system. During the planning phase, planning algorithms based on the shortest route, time cost, overall cost or waiting time are implemented to determine the optimal charging battery for the electric vehicle.

During the authentication and change phases, the EV and charge stack go through an authentication process using information stored on the blockchain, and an EV-generated engagement is recorded on the blockchain. Sun et al. [69] present another way to protect privacy. They suggest connecting each charging station to a power hub associated with multiple power routers. The vehicles can then be charged by connecting to the Power Hub. Since charging vehicles are no longer directly connected to a single charging station, the privacy of the electric vehicle is protected. The signalling model is one where a party adequately conveys knowledge and characteristics about itself to the client. In economics, signaling involves the transmission of information from one party to another.

The purpose of this transfer is to obtain mutual satisfaction from a particular contract or agreement. Dzidek et al. [89] Discussion of lessons learned in the development of a dynamic TOOL for applying OCL constraints for the Java language. The ocl2j tool automatically instruments OCL constraints, which are represented as contracts in Java programs, with aspect-oriented programming technology. The instrumentation performed by ocl2j is not intrusive because the aspect orientation makes it possible to separate the assertions from the source code. The technique allows parallel development for Java as long as the class diagram and contract are stable. The tool successfully instrumented OCHC constraints for the Royal and Loyal case studies. The authors also discuss various non-trivial issues related to the instrumentation @pre keyword and the expression oclIsNew() that require significant work. This chapter aims to examine current contractual models of development assistance, as well as monitoring and evaluation tools, to determine how viable blockchain is to provide development assistance in a transparent and secure manner while respecting privacy.

The results clearly show that current and traditional models of development assistance and their potential corruption and abuse problems have been ineffective overall. Some of the key findings show that existing monitoring and evaluation tools for development assistance are weak, that aid projects tend not to yield results, that official aid data are inaccurate and inadequate, and that beneficiaries are not involved in decision-making processes. Blockchain, with its proven attributes and capabilities, can ultimately solve these traditional problems and enable the development aid sector to achieve the SDGs. The use tool already mentioned [60,61] is a widely used tool for validating OCL models and constraints. USE enables textual and graphical modeling at the model and metamodel level. The purpose of the USE tool is to support the definition, validation, and verification of the execution of OCL invariants as well as prerequisites and subsequent requirements. The USE tool allows you to write an accurate definition of OCL constraints to avoid ambiguous interpretation for OCL and UML diagrams. The tool also supports the analysis, simulation, transformation and validation of UML models with OCL constraints. From a software perspective, classes should be implementations of abstract data types.

Using well-known language functions available in most object-oriented programming languages, we can only define operations and attributes. However, if we want to use types to model “a set of programming language objects with similar behavior,” we need an appropriate means of expression. The reason for this is that specifying abstract data types involves axiomatic semantics, usually expressed by axioms and equations. Object-oriented programming languages generally do not support such axiomatic semantics. We can use the contract template that Bertrand Meyer describes as “Design by Contract” to bridge the gap between specifying and implementing abstract data types. A test case specifies input values for a method of an input component that can operate in one or more input ranges. A test suite consists of test cases to verify the validation of all the assertions proposed by an entry contract. .