Also in 1985, 20 countries, including most of the largest producers of CFCs, signed the Vienna Convention, which created a framework for the negotiation of international regulations on ozone-depleting substances.  Following the discovery of the hole in the ozone layer by SAGE 2, it took only 18 months to reach a binding agreement in Montreal, Canada. Dozens of countries – developed and developing – have often spoken out passionately in support of HFC proposals. Many speakers recognized that the rapid growth of HFCs was being stimulated by the phasing out of other chemicals required in the Montreal Protocol. They also reaffirmed that the Protocol gives Parties the power and responsibility to ensure the safety of ozone-depleting chemicals. As several speakers have said, “the Montreal Protocol created this monster, and the Montreal Protocol must clean it up.” The Treaty evolves over time in the light of new scientific, technical and economic developments and continues to be amended and adapted. The Meeting of the Parties is the governing body of the Treaty, with the technical assistance of an open working group, both of which meet annually. The Parties are assisted by the Ozone Secretariat, which is based at the headquarters of the United Nations Environment Programme in Nairobi, Kenya. Mainly produced in industrialized countries, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) have replaced CFCs and HCFCs. HFCs do not damage the ozone layer because, unlike CFCs and HCFCs, they do not contain chlorine. The Montreal Protocol is signed by 197 countries – the first treaty in the history of the United Nations to be universally ratified – and is considered by many to be the most successful global environmental action. The Montreal Protocol is a model of cooperation. It is the product of international recognition and consensus that ozone depletion is a global problem, both in terms of cause and effect.
The protocol is the result of an extraordinary process of scientific studies, negotiations between representatives of business and environmental protection and international diplomacy. It is a monumental achievement. President Ronald Reagan 1988 The Montreal Protocol gradually reduces the consumption and production of different ozone layer layers with different schedules for developed and developing countries (referred to as “Article 5 countries”). Under this treaty, all Parties have specific responsibilities with respect to the phase-out of different groups of ozone-depleting substances, the control of trade in ozone-depleting substances, annual reporting, national licensing systems for the control of imports and exports of ozone-depleting substances and other matters. Developing and developed countries have equal but different responsibilities, but above all both groups of countries have binding, time-bound and measurable commitments. Either way, it`s a safe bet that Micronesia and the United States, Mexico and Canada will resubmit their proposals next year, and that the pressure on the few countries that stand in the way will continue to increase. Responsibility for monitoring the activities of the Fund shall lie with the Executive Committee, which shall be composed of seven members, each from the countries referred to in Article 5 and from countries not referred to in Article 5. The Committee is assisted by the Secretariat of the Multilateral Fund, based in Montreal.
Since its inception, the Multilateral Fund has supported more than 8,600 projects, including industrial conversion, technical assistance, training and capacity building, worth more than $3.9 billion. The Fund shall be administered by an Executive Committee in which seven industrialized countries and seven Article 5 countries shall be equally represented, elected annually by an Assembly of the Parties. The Committee shall report annually to the Meeting of the Parties on its commercial activities. The work of the Multilateral Fund on the ground in developing countries is carried out by four implementing agencies that have entered into contractual arrangements with the Executive Committee: Throughout the implementation of the Montreal Protocol, developing countries have shown that with the right kind of assistance, they are willing, willing and able to be full partners in global environmental protection efforts. In fact, with the support of the Multilateral Fund, many developing countries have exceeded the reduction targets set for the phase-out of ODS. The year 2012 marked the 25th anniversary of the signing of the Montreal Protocol. . . .